Ethiopia

GDP (US$ Billion)

80.87 (2017)

World Ranking 67/192

GDP Per Capita (US$)

876 (2017)

World Ranking 165/192

Economic Structure

(in terms of GDP composition, 2017)

Services
(36.92%)
Industry
(22.90%)
Agriculture
(33.99%)

External Trade (% of GDP)

35.8 (2016)

Currency (Period Average)

Ethiopian Birr

22.92 per US$ (2017)

Political System

Federal republic

Overview

Ethiopia has one of the fastest growing economies in the world and the country's location gives it strategic dominance as a business hub in the Horn of Africa, close to the Middle East and its markets. Ethiopia is landlocked and has been using neighbouring Djibouti's main port for the last two decades. Improving relations between Ethiopia and its regional neighbour Eritrea bode well for businesses in both countries. In particular, this would help to lower the risk of interstate conflict for businesses and foreign employees, while also giving landlocked Ethiopia access to maritime routes through Eritrean seaports of Assab and Massawa for its international trade.

Ethiopia's huge population of over 102 million people, makes it the second most populous nation in Africa and the Abiy Ahmed-led government aims to reach lower middle-income status by 2025 through implementing the second phase of its Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II). GTP II, which will run to 2020, aims to continue work on physical infrastructure through public investment projects, and to transform Ethiopia into a manufacturing hub. Ethiopia's main challenges are sustaining its positive economic growth by diversifying its economy and strengthening drought resilience, mechanisation and value addition in agriculture, which will help with accelerating poverty reduction. Important measures were taken to address birr overvaluation, large external imbalances, foreign exchange shortages and rising external debt in recent quarters.

Sources: World Bank, Fitch Solutions

Major Economic/Political Events and Upcoming Elections

May 2015

Ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) won an overwhelming victory in the general election.

February 2018

Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn resigned.

April 2018

Abiy Ahmed, leader of the Oromo ethnic group party in the ruling Ethiopian People Revolutionary Democratic Front, took over as prime minister, pledging reconciliation and nation-building.

May-June 2018

Ethiopia's government released thousands of political prisoners and lifted the state of emergency.

July 2018

Ethiopia and Eritrea declared an official end to the war and that both countries were moving towards restoring diplomatic ties and re-opening avenues for trade and co-operation.

October 2018

The Ethiopian government announced 17 infrastructure projects which it intends to develop using public-private partnership contracts. The projects are all in the power and transport sectors, comprising five hydropower plants, eight solar projects and three roads, with a total value of approximately USD7.0 billion.

October 2018

The government signed a peace deal with the separatist Ogaden National Liberation Front, ending a 34-year armed rebellion.

October 2018

Parliament elected Sahle-Work Zewde as Ethiopia's first woman president, and first female head of state since Empress Zawditu (1916-1930).

Sources: BBC country profile – Timeline, Fitch Solutions

Major Economic Indicators

 

Graph: Ethiopia real GDP and inflation
 
Graph: Ethiopia real GDP and inflation
 
Graph: Ethiopia GDP by sector (2017)
 
Graph: Ethiopia GDP by sector (2017)
 
Graph: Ethiopia unemployment rate
 
Graph: Ethiopia unemployment rate
 
Graph: Ethiopia current account balance
 
Graph: Ethiopia current account balance
 

e = estimate, f = forecast

Sources: IMF, World Bank, Fitch Solutions

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

External Trade

Merchandise Trade

 

Graph: Ethiopia merchandise trade
 
Graph: Ethiopia merchandise trade
 
 

e = estimate

Note: For exports, estimates start from 2013, for imports, estimates start from 2016

Sources: WTO, Fitch Solutions

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

Graph: Ethiopia major export commodities (2017)
 
Graph: Ethiopia major export commodities (2017)
 
Graph: Ethiopia major export markets (2017)
 
Graph: Ethiopia major export markets (2017)
 
Graph: Ethiopia major import commodities (2017)
Note: Unclassified products are not included on the chart as they account for less than 1% of total imports
Graph: Ethiopia major import commodities (2017)
Note: Unclassified products are not included on the chart as they account for less than 1% of total imports
Graph: Ethiopia major import markets (2017)
 
Graph: Ethiopia major import markets (2017)
 

Sources: Trade Map, Fitch Solutions

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

Trade in Services

 

Graph: Ethiopia trade in services
 
Graph: Ethiopia trade in services
 
 

Note: 2017 data not available at time of extraction

Sources: WTO, Fitch Solutions

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

Trade Policies
  • A number of export incentives are available, including facilitation of access to working capital finance.

  • The National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE) administers a strict foreign currency control regime, and the Ethiopian birr (ETB) is not freely convertible. As a result, some importers face delays in arranging cross-border payments.

  • Unless exempted by law, items imported into Ethiopia are subject to a number of taxes. The government levies five kinds of taxes on import items. These taxes are assigned priority levels and are calculated in a sequential order. These taxes, in their sequential order, are customs duty, excise tax, VAT, surtax and withholding tax. Taxes on imported goods are collected by the Ethiopian Revenues and Customs Authority.

  • Ethiopia is a member of the Customs Co-operation Council. Ethiopia has reduced customs duties on a wide range of imports and duties are levied at rates ranging from 0% to 35%. Rates on category one goods (such as raw materials, semi-finished goods, producers' goods and items imported for public use, such as minibuses, buses ) range from 0% to 10%. The rates are 20% to 35% for category two goods (consumer or finished goods imported for personal use or for a non-productive purpose). Visitors are allowed to import items up to a specified value duty-free. Excise tax applies on a variety of goods.

  • All importers and exporters must be registered with the Ministry of Trade and obtain a trading licence. The ministry regulates imports. Foreign exchange permits are required for all importers. Highly protective tariffs are applied on certain items, such as textile products and leather goods, to protect local industries.

  • The Ethiopian government has banned exports of raw cotton due to a rise in demand from local textile and garment manufacturers.

  • The NBE must approve all foreign currency transactions, and importers need to apply for an import permit and obtain a letter of credit for the total value of the imports before orders can be made.

  • Ethiopia is currently not a member of any customs unions, and has observer status with the World Trade Organization (WTO). Ethiopia is also a member of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and is in the final negotiation stages to join COMESA's Free Trade Area.

Sources: WTO – Trade Policy Review, Fitch Solutions

Trade Agreement

Multinational Trade Agreements

Active

  • Ethiopia-Sudan: Ethiopia and Sudan signed a preferential trade agreement (PTA) which entered into force on February 6, 2003. In 2017, Ethiopia and Sudan agreed to launch a free trade zone, a railway line and to promote equitable use of the water of the Nile. Ethiopia and Sudan have also agreed on a deal allowing Ethiopia to take a stake in Sudan's largest sea gateway port – Port Sudan. Nevertheless, trade with Sudan accounts for a small share of Ethiopia's total trade.

Under Negotiation

  • The COMESA: COMESA is a free trade area with 21 member states stretching from Tunisia to eSwatini. COMESA was formed in December 1994, replacing a PTA which had existed since 1981. Ethiopia played a significant role in establishing COMESA, but it is still not part of its free trade agreement (FTA). As a first step towards joining the FTA, Ethiopia reduced tariffs for COMESA originating products by 10% in 1989. In 2014, a study on the competitiveness of Ethiopian firms participating in the COMESA FTA was undertaken. The study recommended a phase down of products on which tariffs could be reduced to zero by 2019. The country is consulting on effecting further reductions.

  • Ethiopia-Egypt FTA: While this agreement is still under negotiation, the removal of trade barriers would benefit investors and regional trade.

Signed But Not Ratified

  • African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA): In March 2018, 44 out of 54 African countries (including Ethiopia) signed a framework establishing the AfCTA, with the goal of creating a single continental market for goods and services, with free movement of business persons and investments once the agreement is ratified. The AfCFTA would ease access to markets within the FTA zone and end problems due to several of the member countries in the FTA belonging to multiple regional groups. Signing the agreement is only the first step, as a minimum of 22 countries must ratify it. National legislative bodies must approve and sanction the framework formally, showing full commitment to its implementation. Better market access creates economies of scale, which is a boon for Africa's small producers, particularly in the agriculture space, such that many smallholder and commercial farmers in Ethiopia would benefit.

Sources: WTO Regional Trade Agreements database, COMESA, Fitch Solutions

Investment Policy

Foreign Direct Investment

 

Graph: Ethiopia FDI stock
 
Graph: Ethiopia FDI stock
 
Graph: Ethiopia FDI flow
 
Graph: Ethiopia FDI flow
 

Note: No outward FDI data available

Sources: UNCTAD, Fitch Solutions

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

Foreign Direct Investment Policy

  1. Attracting foreign investment is a key objective of the Ethiopian government, embedded within its current (2016-2020) five-year GTP II. The government is seeking to attract investment in the high-priority sectors of heavy and light manufacturing, agribusiness, textiles, sugar, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and mineral and metals processing. The government is taking steps to streamline the investment process by developing a more efficient 'one-stop-shop' facility for foreign investors.

  2. Ethiopia's Investment Code provides incentives for development-related investments, reduces capital entry requirements for joint ventures, permits the duty-free import of some capital goods and opens the real estate sector to foreign investors, among other incentives.

  3. Overall economic growth targets are an annual average GDP growth of 11%. In line with its manufacturing strategy, the country also hopes the industrial sector will grow by an average of 20%, thereby creating more jobs. Over a multi-year time horizon, rising manufactured goods exports will continue to bolster export growth. Industrial parks in Melle, Dire Dawa, Adama and several other locations are set to come online by the end of 2019, in line with the government's plans for Ethiopia to become a larger regional manufacturing hub in the long term. With a devaluation of the birr going some way towards boosting export competitiveness, this will further facilitate a rise in the trade of manufactured goods over time.

  4. The Ethiopian government is aggressively mobilising capital into new power projects, with its second GTP II outlining a robust power projects pipeline that will strengthen the capacity for electricity generation over the next decade. Under the GTP II, the government plans to mobilise USD20 billion of investment in order to build 10-12 new power generation facilities.

  5. Industrial parks will be particularly beneficial to the manufacturing sector, with tax and duty incentives set by the government to accompany investments in the textile and garment industry, leather and leather products, sugar and sugar-related products, cement, metal and engineering, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and agro-processing. Incentives for developers include a tax holiday of as long as 15 years and duty-free privileges, with further advantages for building done outside the capital. Incentives for manufacturers include tax exemptions of 10 years if they export all their products from a site not in Addis Ababa.

  6. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) dominate major sectors of the economy and preference is given to them for investment, access to credit, foreign exchange, land, procurement contracts and import duties. Traditionally, very few SOEs release detailed financial statements, which makes it difficult to scrutinise their financial data. Corporate governance of SOEs is monitored by a board of directors composed of senior government officials. That said, the Ministry of Public Enterprises has begun streamlining governance and financial management of SOEs, as well as improving transparency.

  7. Ethiopia's foreign ownership restrictions are above average for the region, particularly in the service industries. Certain sectors are reserved to domestic investors. Reserved sectors include: broadcasting, retail and wholesale trade (except in petroleum and locally produced goods), import trade, export trade of local agricultural products, small- and medium-scale construction, bars and nightclubs, small hotels and restaurants, travel agencies, car and taxi services, bakery products, grinding mills, barber shops and beauty salons, goldsmith shops, tailoring services, building and vehicle maintenance services, saw-milling, customs clearance, museums and theatres and printing.

  8. A comparatively large number of sectors are dominated by government entities, including telecommunications, defence, financial services, media, transportation, and retail. Notable additional sectors dominated by publicly owned enterprises include electricity and transport.

  9. All foreigners are required to open accounts denominated in ETB with one of the commercial banks or authorised dealers or with special permission from the NBE. Credits to the accounts can be made only with foreign exchange receipts from abroad or checks from other similar accounts. Credits between two locally-based accounts are not permitted.

  10. All foreign currency transactions must be approved by the NBE. The birr usually operates under a managed float regime, which sometimes raises risks of foreign currency liquidity constraints.

  11. In early June 2018, Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced that the government would open up the state telecoms company Ethio Telecom and air carrier Ethiopian Airlines to private and foreign investment. While the government will continue to hold majority stakes in both entities, shares will be sold to private and foreign investors. This announcement suggests upside risks for further economic reforms in the quarters ahead.

  12. There are no discriminatory or excessively onerous visa, residence or work permit requirements applicable to foreign investors.

  13. Foreign currency exceeding the equivalent of USD3,000 must be declared to customs upon arrival in the country. The exchange of foreign currency is permitted only via authorised banks. Currency up to the equivalent of USD40,000 may be exported.

Sources: Ethiopia Ministry of Revenues, Fitch Solutions

Free Trade Zones and Investment Incentives

Free Trade Zone/Incentive Programme Main Incentives Available
Investment incentives (general) Ethiopia's Investment Code outlines the following:



- Provides incentives for development-related investments

- Reduces capital entry requirements for joint ventures

- Permits the duty-free import of capital goods (except computers and vehicles)

- Opens the real estate sector to foreign investors

- Extends the relief for losses carried forward

- Gives priority to investors for the lease of land



To encourage private investment and promote the inflow of foreign capital and technology into Ethiopia, the following incentives are granted to both domestic and foreign investors engaged in qualifying areas:



- Exemption from customs duties for certain eligible investors

- Income tax holidays

- Duty draw-back schemes, voucher schemes and bonded manufacturing warehouse schemes
State-owned special economic zones (SEZs) in operation include Bole-Lemi I and Addis Industrial Park, located near Addis Ababa, as well as Hawassa Industrial Park in the south, Kombolcha and Mekelle



Private industrial zones include Dukem, Sendafa, Ayka Addis, Hujian Industrial Zone
These zones hold numerous benefits for apparel industry, including tax exemptions, duty-free privileges and fewer bureaucratic procedures. Specifically, investors benefit from:



- Exemption from customs duties for certain eligible investors

- Income tax holidays

- Duty draw-back schemes

- Voucher schemes

- Bonded manufacturing warehouse schemes

- A number of export incentives are available, including facilitation of access to working capital finance
SEZs under construction across the country and due to open operations during the course of 2018-2019 include Bole Lemi II, Kilinto, Dire Dawa, Adama, Bahir Dar, Jimma, Areti, Debre Birhan and Air Lines Logistics Park Benefits for the textile, leather, sugar, cement, metal, chemical, pharmaceutical and agro-processing industries, including tax exemptions, duty-free privileges and fewer bureaucratic procedures

Source: Fitch Solutions

Taxation – 2018
  • Value Added Tax: 15%
  • Corporate Income Tax: 30%

Source: Ethiopian Minister of Revenues

Important Updates to Taxation Information

As part of modernising its services, the Ministry of Revenue of Ethiopia is set to fully collect tax from large tax payers using electronic payment system. The e-tax payment system has been tested for about a year as pilot by 11 companies, is expected to go fully operational in 2019. The e-tax payment has been tested on the system of Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, the state financial institution which has over half market share of the banking business in Ethiopia.

Ethiopia – Business Taxes

Type of Tax Tax Rate and Base
Resident company: Corporate Tax Rates
 
30% on profits
Turnover Tax 2% and 10% on goods and services
Excise Tax 35-100% on specified goods manufactured in Ethiopia and on imports
Customs duties 0-35% on imports
Social security contributions The employer must contribute to the social security scheme on behalf of the employee at a rate of 11% of basic salary. The employee’s contribution is 7%
VAT/GST (standard) 15% on sale of goods and services

Source: Ethiopian Minister of Revenues

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

Foreign Worker Requirements

Localisation Requirements

Companies encounter few barriers when hiring expatriate workers. All foreigners wishing to engage in employment in Ethiopia are required to obtain a work permit, which will be granted if the employer can prove that the job cannot be performed by a local recruit.

Foreign Worker Permits

Expatriates and work permit visas may be secured via an application to an Ethiopian diplomatic or consular mission abroad. The eligibility criteria for obtaining a work permit are set by the Ethiopian Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. The requirements may differ depending on the type of organisation that intends to hire the expatriate worker or depending on the type of permit sought (ie, a new work permit, renewal of an existing permit or clearance for a permit). A work permit for expatriates working for a foreign investor upon submission of an investment permit is issued by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. With regard to family members, spouses and children are entitled to stay in the country on special passes, the validity of which depends on the corresponding work permit.

Visa/Travel Restrictions

Only citizens of Djibouti and Kenya can travel visa-free to Ethiopia. Forty countries, including South Africa, the United States of America, Canada, Australia, India and mainland China, are issued visas on arrival that are valid for up to three months. Most other African, Middle Eastern and Latin American countries require visas before arrival.

Sources: Government websites, Fitch Solutions

Risks

Sovereign Credit Ratings


 
Rating (Outlook) Rating Date
Moody's
 
B1 (Stable) 23/02/2018
Standard & Poor's B (Stable) 09/05/2014
Fitch Ratings
 
B (Stable) 23/11/2018

Sources: Moody's, Standard & Poor's, Fitch Ratings

Competitiveness and Efficiency Indicators


 
World Ranking
 
2017 2018 2019
Ease of Doing Business Index
 
159/190 161/190 159/190
Ease of Paying Taxes Index
 
90/189 133/190 130/190
Logistics Performance Index
 
N/A N/A N/A
Corruption Perception Index
 
107/180 114/180 N/A
IMD World Competitiveness N/A N/A N/A

Sources: World Bank, IMD, Transparency International, Fitch Solution

Fitch Solutions Risk Indices


 
World Ranking
2017 2018 2019
Economic Risk Index Rank N/A 128/202 136/202
Short-Term Economic Risk Score
 
41.3 41.7 41.7
 
Long-Term Economic Risk Score 45.7 47.0 46.5
Political Risk Index Rank N/A 180/202 180/202
Short-Term Political Risk Score 47.5 47.9 47.9
 
Long-Term Political Risk Score 38.7 41.7 41.7
Operational Risk Index Rank N/A 161/201 161/202
Operational Risk Score 34.4 34.9 35.0
 

Source: Fitch Solutions

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

Fitch Solutions Risk Summary

ECONOMIC RISK

Ethiopia will post robust growth over the next 10 years, benefitting from continued gains in the agricultural sector, robust infrastructure investment and a rapidly expanding manufacturing sector. Furthermore, the advent of a more reform-minded leader bodes well for political and economic stability in the medium term. With the country's sizeable population, improving logistics and low electricity prices, the country will, increasingly, position itself as a regional manufacturing hub over the next decade. From a risk perspective, Ethiopia's agriculture-based economy remains highly susceptible to adverse weather conditions, while the private sector remains broadly underdeveloped which inhibits the economy's resilience to shocks in key sectors such as agriculture. Furthermore, Ethiopia's main internal challenges are accelerating poverty reduction and reducing legal risks for businesses.

OPERATIONAL RISK

Ethiopia is one of the most attractive markets in East Africa on account of its promising economic outlook driven by infrastructure-led investments, a large pool of available labour and abundant natural resources. Nonetheless, the country is currently operating below capacity on account of risk factors stemming from an underdeveloped internal transport network, low electrification rates, limited access to credit, high-reliance on foreign aid, a largely unskilled labour pool, wide regional disparities in access to basic services and security challenges in the Horn of Africa. Businesses operating in Ethiopia also face burdensome trade procedures (especially for imports), limited inland freight options and considerable risk of supply chain delays at Djibouti's congested port.

Source: Fitch Solutions

Date last reviewed: February 16, 2019

Fitch Solutions Political and Economic Risk Indices

Graph: Ethiopia short term political risk index
 
Graph: Ethiopia short term political risk index
 
Graph: Ethiopia long term political risk index
 
Graph: Ethiopia long term political risk index
 
Graph: Ethiopia short term economic risk index
 
Graph: Ethiopia short term economic risk index
 
Graph: Ethiopia long term economic risk index
 
Graph: Ethiopia long term economic risk index
 

100 = Lowest risk, 0 = Highest risk

Source: Fitch Solutions Political and Economic Risk Indices

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index


 
Operational Risk Labour Market Risk Trade and Investment Risk Logistics Risk Crime and Security Risk
Ethiopia Score 35.0 43.9 30.6 36.7 28.6
East Africa Average 32.2 40.7 32.9 31.6 23.6
East Africa Position (out of 11) 6
 
4 6 3 4
 
SSA Average 34.5 38.3 34.4 33.3 32.0
SSA Position (out of 48) 22 12 29 13 28
Global Average 49.6 49.7 49.9 49.0 49.8
Global Position (out of 201) 161 140 168 141 167

100 = Lowest risk, 0 = Highest risk

Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index

Graph: Ethiopia vs global and regional averages
 
Graph: Ethiopia vs global and regional averages
 
Country
 
Operational Risk Index Labour Market Risk Index
 

Trade and Investment Risk Index

Logistics Risk Index Crime and Security Risk Index
Rwanda 49.6 51.4 52.6 43.7 50.8
Kenya 41.7 44.2 45.0 52.0 25.8
Tanzania 36.3 42.9 35.2 33.4 33.5
Uganda 35.8 46.7 39.0 33.4 24.1
Djibouti 35.2 37.4 42.8 28.5 31.9
Ethiopia 35.0 43.9 30.6 36.7 28.6
Burundi 27.8 42.0 25.6 25.2 18.4
Sudan 26.5 32.3 27.6 29.9 16.1
Eritrea 25.4 36.7 15.4 30.3 19.4
Somalia 22.5 36.0 28.7 18.1 7.0
South Sudan 18.8 34.4 19.6 16.8 4.5
Regional Averages 32.2 40.7 32.9 31.6 23.6
Emerging Markets Averages 46.7 48.1 45.5 47.4 46.0
Global Markets Averages 49.6 49.7 49.9 49.0 49.8

100 = Lowest risk, 0 = Highest risk

Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

Trade and Investment Risk Index
Hong Kong Connection

Hong Kong’s Trade with Ethiopia

 

Graph: Major export commodities to Ethiopia (2018)
 
Graph: Major export commodities to Ethiopia (2018)
 
Graph: Major import commodities from Ethiopia (2018)
 
Graph: Major import commodities from Ethiopia (2018)
 

Note: Graph shows the main Hong Kong exports to/imports from Ethiopia (by consignment)

Graph: Merchandise exports to Ethiopia
 
Graph: Merchandise exports to Ethiopia
 
Graph: Merchandise imports from Ethiopia
 
Graph: Merchandise imports from Ethiopia
 

Note: Graph shows Hong Kong exports to/imports from Ethiopia (by consignment)

Exchange Rate HK$/US$, average

7.75 (2014)

7.75 (2015)

7.76 (2016)

7.79 (2017)

7.83 (2018)

Sources: Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, Fitch Solutions

Date last reviewed: December 6, 2018


 
2017
 
Growth rate (%)
 
Number of Ethiopian residents visiting Hong Kong 896
 
23.9

Sources: Hong Kong Tourism Board, Fitch Solutions


 
2017 Growth rate (%)
Number of African residents visiting Hong Kong 142,512
 
-11.6

Sources: Hong Kong Tourism Board, Fitch Solutions

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

Commercial Presence in Hong Kong


 
2016
 
Growth rate (%)
 
Number of Ethiopian companies in Hong Kong N/A N/A
- Regional headquarters
- Regional offices
- Local offices



Treaties and Agreements between Hong Kong and Ethiopia

1. There is a bilateral investment treaty agreement between Ethiopia and mainland China signed in 1998, and which came into effect in 2000.

2. In May 2010, the agreement between Ethiopia and Hong Kong governing the avoidance of double taxation from exercise of international air transportation activities came into force.

Sources: UNCTAD, Hong Kong Inland Revenue Department

Chamber of Commerce (or Related Organisations) in Hong Kong

Consulate of Ethiopia in Hong Kong

Address: Room 1001, 10/F, Cambridge House, 26-28 Cameron Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Email: ethiopia_consulate@hotmail.com

Tel: (852) 2363 0200

Source: Hong Kong Protocol Division Government Secretartiat

Visa Requirements for Hong Kong Residents

Hong Kong residents may obtain a tourist visa valid for up to three months on arrival at Addis Ababa (Bole) International airport, at a cost of approximately USD52 for one month and USD72 for three months. To get a visa on arrival, travellers need to also have two passport photographs. In June 2018, Ethiopia launched an 'e-visa'. This allows Hong Kong residents to easily apply for tourist visas (more visa categories will be added in future). All other categories of visitors must get a visa from the Ethiopian Embassy closest to their place of legal residence before travelling.

Source: Main Department for Immigration and Nationality Affairs, Ethiopia

Date last reviewed: March 22, 2019

 

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